Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, almost exactly nine months after the gruesome murders of by Jack the Ripper, as if the killings were part of some dark ritual performed by the Golden Dawn to bring about the birth of some sort of “mind-controlled” messiah of chaos, and Aleister Crowley must have been his handler. Bulwer-Lytton was the “Grand Patron” of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA), whose Supreme Magus, William Wynn Westcott, was one of the three founders of the Golden Dawn. Westcott became an important member of Blavatsky’s Theosophical Society, later also Master of the Masonic research lodge Quatuor Coronati, and under his authority Theodor Reuss founded irregular masonic and Rosicrucian lodges in Germany in 1902. Crowley joined Reuss’s Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO) in 1912. Eerily, in the Secret Doctrine, Blavatsky described the ominous portent of the so-called Vril force of the coming race mentioned by Bulwer-Lytton:
It is this Satanic Force that our generations were to be allowed to add to their stock of Anarchist’s baby-toys…. It is this destructive agency, which, once in the hands of some modern Attila, a bloodthirsty antichrist, for instance, would in a few days reduce Europe to its primitive chaotic state, with no man left alive to tell the tale.
The Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP), which was later reorganized by Hitler into the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), or Nazi Party, was sponsored by Thule Society, which was inspired by the occult myths of Ariosophy. In their book The Morning of the Magicians, Pauwels and Bergier claimed that inner circle of the Thule Society, the Vril-Society, named after Edward Bulwer-Lytton’s novel Vril, the Power of the Coming Race, was in close contact with the English group known as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. according to Hitler biographer Ian Kershaw, the organization’s “membership list… reads like a Who’s Who of early Nazi sympathizers and leading figures in Munich,” including Rosenberg and Eckart, as well as Rudolf Hess, Hans Frank, Julius Lehmann, Gottfried Feder, and Karl Harrer.” Rudolf von Sebottendorf, the Thule Society’s founder, instructed Harrer to set up a political group aimed at ordinary workers, which became the short-lived DAP in January 1919. When the Thules of the DAP met Hitler in that same year, many of them believed him to be the prophesied redeemer, despite the fact that Hitler’s had no formal education or political experience. The reason for their enthusiasm was Hitler’s purported rhetorical abilities, which by many accounts, happened in a state that could be linked to a hypnotic trance, during which he hailed the glories of a future Aryan Germany, repeating the delusions of Ariosophists Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels.
Hitler claimed to have been guided by a “voice” which he referred to a “Providence.” By his own account:
Unless I have the incorruptible condition… I do nothing. Not even if the whole party tried to drive me to action. I will not act; I will wait, no matter what happens. But if the voice speaks, then I know the time has come to act.
According to Greg Hallett, author of Hitler Was a British Agent, Hitler was in England in 1912-1913, a fact supported by his sister-in-law’s book, The Memoirs of Bridget Hitler, and he proposes that Hitler spent February to November 1912 undergoing mind-control training at the British Military Psych-Ops War School at Tavistock in Devon and in Ireland. Hitler’s sister-in-law describes him as completely wasted upon his arrival at her Liverpool home luggage-less. “I had an idea he was ill, his color was so bad and his eyes looked so peculiar,” she wrote. “He was always reading, not books, little pamphlets printed in German. I don’t know what was in them nor exactly where they came from.” Hallett proposed that this reading material was manuals from Tavistock.
What gave rise to the Tavistock program was the British Army Psychological Warfare Bureau’s use of propaganda during World War I, which was intended to convince the British that war was necessary and that Germany was an enemy to be detested. A key element in that plan was the provocation of Germany’s sinking of the Lusitania. Profiting from this experience, the British Army Bureau of Psychological Warfare set up the Tavistock Institute for Human Relations on the orders of the British monarchy and placed British newspaper magnate, Alfred Harmsworth, Viscount Northcliffe, owner of the Daily Mail, the Daily Mirror and The Times, and an admirer of Cecile Rhodes, who was appointed director for propaganda under David Lloyd George.
The Tavistock Clinic, later renamed the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, a British not-for-profit organization formed at Oxford University in 1920 by Dr. Hugh Crichton-Miller, a psychiatrist who developed psychological treatments for shell-shocked soldiers. Tavistock was reportedly formed on the orders Round Table’s Royal Institute for International Affairs (RIIA), and relies on grants from the Rockefeller and Carmegie foundations, the British Home Office and other anonymous supporters. Its members referred to themselves as an “invisible college,” in reference to the in reference to the seventeenth-century precursor to the Royal Society  The staff at Tavistock consisted of Arnold Toynbee, a future director of studies at the RIIA, Round Tabler Walter Lippmann and Edward Bernays.
Tavistock was concerned with the psychology of group behavior and organizational behavior, based on the psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud. As shown in “The Consolation of Theosophy II,” an article by Frederick C. Crews for The New York Review of Books, several scholars have established that Freud was among the key figures who developed therapy through the retrieval of forgotten trauma, through a debt to Mesmer. People have been employing hypnotic-type states for thousands of years, and in many cultures and religions. Hypnosis is what has been referred to in the past as casting a spell, or the trance or altered states of consciousness of mystics, mediums and shamans. Research psychiatrist E. Fuller Torrey in The Mind Game aligns hypnotic techniques with witchcraft.”
According to William Kroger and William Fezler in Hypnosis and Behavior Modification, “For centuries, Zen, Buddhist, Tibetan, and Yogic methods have used a system of meditation and an altered state of consciousness similar to hypnosis.” When Ernest Hilgard, an American psychologist and professor at Stanford University—who became famous in the 1950s for his research on hypnosis—was asked what was the difference between hypnosis as used by a trained practitioner and that used by shamans or witch doctors, he responded, “Trained practitioners know a great deal about contemporary psychotherapy and hypnosis is merely adjuvant. In this they differ from those whose practices are essentially magical.”
Western scientists first became involved in hypnosis around 1770, through the influence of occultist Franz Anton Mesmer. The theories and practices of mesmerism greatly influenced the up-and-coming field of psychiatry with such early practitioners as Jean Martin Charcot, Pierre Janet and Freud. Adam Crabtree’s From Mesmer to Freud: Magnetic Sleep and the Roots of Psychological Healing traces Mesmer’s use of hypnotism to uncover the influence of unconscious mental activity as the source of repressed thoughts or impulses in the theories of Freud. Jonathan Miller traced the steps by which psychologists gradually stripped Mesmerism of its occult associations, reducing it to mere hypnosis and thus paving the way for recognition of non-conscious mental functioning.
Hitler’s upbringing reveals circumstances often associated with childhood trauma common in victims of psychosis. Hitler’s father Alois Hitler was illegitimate, and known to be bad-tempered and to have beat his children and his wife. Alois married three times, and was known for promiscuity. Not long after marrying his first wife Anna, Alois began an affair with Franziska “Fanni” Matzelsberger. In 1880 Alois and Anna separated by mutual agreement, and the 19-year-old Matzelsberger became the 43-year-old Alois’ girlfriend and they had two illegitimate children. But in 1876, three years after Hitler’s father Alois married Anna, he had hired Klara Pölzl as a household servant. She was the 16-year-old granddaughter of Alois’s step-uncle (and possible father or biological uncle) Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. If Nepomuk was Alois’ father, Klara was Alois’ half-niece. If his father was Johann Georg, she was his first cousin once removed. Klara married Alois in 1885, a year after the death of Matzelsberger. Alois’ mother, Maria Schicklgruber, was reputedly a Jew, and his godfather was certainly Jewish.
As is popularly known, there had been widespread rumors that Hitler was himself Jewish. Such a claim was put forward by a prominent New York City attorney named Jerrold Morgulas, in The Torquemada Principal, while still other theories suggested Hitler was the illegitimate grandchild of a Rothschild. But, according to Rabbi Antelman, these theories are incorrect. Rather, he claims, Hitler was the deliberate creation of a ritual participated in by his mother, Klara Polzl, who was a Sabbatean Frankist. The ritual was held on the 9th of Av, known as Tisha B’av, which observed by Jews as a fast day commemorating the destruction of the First and Second Temples, but commemorated by Frankists as Sabbatai Zevi’s birthday, on which they celebrate with their sex rites.
In fact, Hitler’s Jewish and African ancestry has been confirmed through recent genetic studies. Like Napoleon, Hitler belonged to the Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1b, which is rare in Germany and even Western Europe. According to Ronny Decorte, genetics expert at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven who sampled Hitler’s current living relatives, “the results of this study are surprising” and “Hitler would not have been happy.” E1b1b is presently found in various forms in the Horn of Africa, North Africa, parts of Eastern, Western, and Southern Africa, West Asia, and Europe, especially the Mediterranean Spain and the Balkans. E1b1b is quite common amongst populations with an Afro-Asiatic speaking history, where a significant proportion of Jewish male lineages are E1b1b1, including that of Albert Einstein. E1b1b1, which accounts for approximately 18% to 20% of Ashkenazi and up to 30% of Sephardi Y-chromosomes, appears to be one of the major founding lineages of the Jewish population.
In The Jew of Linz, Kimberley Cornish alleges that the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein had a profound effect on Hitler when they were both pupils at the Realschule in Linz, Austria, in the early 1900s. Wittgenstein and Hitler both attended the Linz Realschule, a state school of about 300 students, and were there at the same time only from 1903 to 1904, according to Wittgenstein’s biographers. Wittgenstein later attended Trinity College, where he became a protégé of Bertrand Russell. Wittgenstein was invited by John Maynard Keynes to join the Cambrige Apostles. While Hitler was just six days older than Wittgenstein, they were two grades apart at the school, as Hitler was required to repeat a year while Wittgenstein had been advanced one. Cornish’s theory that Hitler knew the young Wittgenstein, and learned to hate him, and that Wittgenstein was the one Jewish boy from his school days at the Realschule referred to in Mein Kampf:
Likewise at school I found no occasion which could have led me to change this inherited picture. At the Realschule, to be sure, I did meet one Jewish boy who was treated by all of us with caution, but only because various experiences had led us to doubt his discretion and we did not particularly trust him; but neither I nor the others had any thoughts on the matter.
August Kubizek, a childhood friend, claimed that Hitler was so influenced by seeing Wagner’s Rienzi as a young man in 1906 or 1907, that it triggered his political career, and that when Kubizek reminded Hitler, in 1939 at Bayreuth, of his enthusiastic response to the opera, Hitler replied, “At that hour it all began!” The opera, which was based on a novel by Edward Bulwer-Lytton of the same name, about the life of the Italian megalomaniac and proto-fascist Cola di Rienzi who set up a short-lived Roman republic in fourteenth century, who inspired the Risorgimento, as well as Napoleon, Gabriele d’Annunzio and Mussolini. As Kubizek described the incident in 1905, when Hitler was only fifteen:
It was the most impressive hour I ever lived through with my friend… Never before and never again have I heard Adolf Hitler speak as he did in that hour, and we stood there alone under the stars… I was struck by something strange, which I had never noticed before, even when he had talked to me in moments of the greatest excitement. It was as if another being spoke out of his body, and moved him as much as it did me. It wasn’t at all a case of a speaker being carried away by his own words. On the contrary; I rather felt as though he himself listened with astonishment and emotion to what burst forth from him with elementary force. I will not attempt to interpret this phenomenon, but it was a state of complete ecstasy and rapture, in which he transferred the character of Rienzi… with visionary power to the plan of his own ambitions… He conjured up in grandiose, inspiring pictures his own future and that of his people.
Hitler had left his hometown of Linz in Austria in 1907, to live and study fine art in Vienna, financed by orphan’s benefits and support from his mother. He applied for admission to the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna but was rejected twice. The director suggested Hitler should apply to the School of Architecture, but he lacked the necessary academic credentials since he had not completed secondary school. In 1909, Hitler ran out of money and was forced to live a bohemian lifestyle in homeless shelters and a men’s dormitory. According to Samuel Igra, author of Germanany’s National Vice, an affidavit in the possession of the diplomatic representatives of several governments in Vienna “declared that Hitler had been a male prostitute in Vienna… from 1907 to 1912, and that he practiced the same calling in Munich from 1912 to 1914.”
Hitler was in Vienna in 1913, where in the same year there also lived Leon Trotsky, Yugoslavia’s eventual leader Marshal Tito, Sigmund Freud and Joseph Stalin, who according to Hallett was another Illuminati “agent of war” who attended the Tavistock Psyche Ops training school in 1907. It was in Vienna that Trotsky and Stalin met for the first time. There has often been the suggestion that Gurdjieff and Joseph Dzhugashvili, later known as Stalin, met as young students while attending the same seminary in Tiflis in the Caucasus. Gurdjieff’s family records contain information that Stalin lived in his family’s house for a while. There are also suggestions that Stalin belonged to an occult “eastern brotherhood,” which consisted of Gurdjieff and his followers. Freud frequented the Cafe Landtmann, while Trotsky and Hitler often visited Cafe Central.
Hitler stated in Mein Kampf that he first became an anti-Semite in Vienna. According to Josef Greiner’s account of Hitler’s youth in Vienna, meetings and lectures concerned with astrology, hypnotism and other forms of divination were commonplace in the capital before the outbreak of the war. Hitler read newspapers and pamphlets that published the thoughts of philosophers and theoreticians such as Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Charles Darwin, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gustave Le Bon and Arthur Schopenhauer. During his time in Vienna, he pursued a growing passion for architecture and music, attending ten performances of Lohengrin, his favorite Wagner opera. Georg Ritter von Schönerer, a exponent of pan-Germanism and German nationalism in Austria, became a major influence on Hitler.
Lanz von Liebenfels told psychologist Wilfried Daim that Hitler had visited him at the office his Ostara journal Georg Ritter von Schönerer, a exponent of pan-Germanism and German nationalism in Austria, became a major influence on Hitler. in Rodaun on the outskirts of Vienna during 1909. Hitler told von Liebenfels that he was interested in his racial theories and wished to buy some back numbers of Ostara in order to complete his collection. Von Liebenfels, noticing that Hitler looked very poor, gave him the requested issues for free, as well as two crowns for his return fare to the city center. Daim was subsequently approached by a certain Elsa Schmidt-Falk, who claimed that Hitler had regularly visited her and her late husband, an SA (Stormtrooper) leader in Munich, when Hitler frequently mentioned his reading Guido von List.
In August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, Hitler was living in Munich and voluntarily enlisted in the Bavarian Army, despite the fact that he was as an Austrian citizen and should have been returned to Austria. He served as a dispatch runner on the Western Front in France and Belgium, spending nearly half his time at the regimental headquarters in Fournes-en-Weppes, well behind the front lines. He was present at the First Battle of Ypres, the Battle of the Somme, the Battle of Arras, and the Battle of Passchendaele, and was wounded at the Somme. He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross, Second Class, in 1914. On a recommendation by Lieutenant Hugo Gutmann, Hitler’s Jewish superior, he received the Iron Cross, First Class on 4 August 1918, a decoration rarely awarded to one of Hitler’s Gefreiter rank. He received the Black Wound Badge on May 18, 1918.
Hitler reported another incident of hearing “the Voice” when he narrowly escaped death from a French artillery shell on November 15, 1914:
I was eating my dinner in a trench with several comrades. Suddenly, a voice seemed to be saying to me: “get up and go over there.” It was so clear and insistent that I obeyed automatically as if it has been a military order. I rose at once to my feet and walked twenty meters along the trench carrying my dinner can with me. Then I sat down to go on eating, my mind once more at rest. Hardly had I done so when a flash and defining report came from the part of the trench I had just left. A stray shell had burst over the group in which I had been sitting, and every member of it was killed.
It was on October 15, 1918, when he was temporarily blinded in a mustard gas attack and was hospitalized in Pasewalk, when Hitler again had an important experience with the “Voice.” Hitler admits that he experienced a “vision” and heard a voice from “another world,” during which he was told that he would need to restore his sight so that he could lead Germany back to glory. The “Voice” insisted that Hitler had been chosen by Providence and had been given a Divine mission. Hitler was destined to establish a new social order, a new Reich which would be established under his leadership. In a footnote of his biography of Hitler, John Toland purported that Hitler may have been hypnotized.
According to a US Navy Intelligence report which was declassified in 1973, and written by Austrian nerve specialist Karl Kroner, who was working when Hitler was treated in Pasewalk, the consulting psychiatrist Edmund Forster concluded that Hitler’s condition was hysterical blindness. Whatever treatment Hitler received under Forster’s care will never be known due to the fact that in 1933 the Gestapo seized all psychiatric records related to his treatment and destroyed them. Forster also committed suicide in the same year. According to historian Dr. Thomas Weber of the University of Aberdeen, who has explored the significance of Hitler’s time in Pasewalk, “Hitler left the First World War an awkward loner who had never commanded a single other soldier, but very quickly became a charismatic leader who took over his country.”
Toland refers to a curious parallel of Hitler’s experience, found in a book completed in 1939 titled The Eyewitness, written by a Jewish doctor Ernst Weiss, who was acquainted with Forster. Weiss fled Germany in 1933 and committed suicide in Paris when the Nazis arrived. The Eyewitness tells of a German corporal named “A.H.” blinded during a mustard gas attack and treated by a psychiatrist at Pasewalk. The Corporal is described as a patient with an Austrian accent, who has received the Iron Cross, and who loves the music of Wagner but hates Jews. The psychiatrist hypnotizes A.H. and suggests that he must recover his sight in order to lead the German people. “Perhaps you yourself have the rare power, which occurs only occasionally in a thousand years, to work a miracle,” the doctor tells A.H. “Jesus did it. Mohammed. The saints? You are young; it would be too bad for you to stay blind. You know that Germany needs people who have energy and blind self-confidence.”
Hitler in Pasewalk by Bernhard Horstmann and David Lewis’ The Man who Invented Hitler both explain the metamorphosis in terms of the hypnosis. Claus Hant, a German author who has spent 15 years researching Hitler’s youth, believes the event is “the most significant event in Hitler’s early life and goes a long way towards explaining what drove him to become the man he was.” In later years Hitler described his experience in Pasewalk in spiritual terms, frequently identifying himself with Jesus Christ. At a Christmas celebration in 1926, he said: “The work that Christ had begun but had been unable to finish [Hitler] would complete.” An April 1939 article in Cosmopolitan Magazine quotes Hitler as saying, “and as I lay there the realization came to me that I would liberate the German people and make Germany great.” August Kubizek, one of Hitler’s closest friends since childhood, claims that at age seventeen Hitler once spoke to him of “returning Germany to its former glory.” As Kubizek described the incident:
It was as if another being spoke out of his body, and moved him as much as it did me. It wasn’t at all a case of a speaker being carried away by his own words. On the contrary; I rather felt as though he himself listened with astonishment and emotion to what burst forth from him with elementary force. I will not attempt to interpret this phenomenon, but it was a state of complete ecstasy and rapture.
Similar descriptions of Hitler’s possible demonic possession were expressed by several other authors. Hitler Speaks by Hermann Rauschning—a former Nazi who broke with the Third Reich before publishing several books denouncing Hitler—suggests that Hitler was a medium transformed by powers that, “are something that is outside their true personality—visitors, as it were, from another planet. The medium is possessed. Once the crisis is past, they fall back again into mediocrity. It was in this way, beyond any doubt, that Hitler was possessed by forces outside himself—almost demoniacal forces which the individual named Hitler was only the temporary vehicle.” According to Gregor Strasser, another former member of the Nazi party, “Listening to Hitler one suddenly has a vision of one who will lead mankind to glory… A light appears in a dark window. A gentleman with a comic little moustache turns into an archangel… Then the archangel flies away… and there is Hitler sitting down, bathed in sweat with glassy eyes…” The French writer Robert Bouchez remarked, “I looked into his eyes—the eyes of a medium in a trance… Sometimes there seemed to be a sort of ectoplasm; the speaker’s body seemed to be inhabited by something… fluid. Afterwards he shrank again into insignificance, looking small and even vulgar. He seemed exhausted, his batteries run down.” Francois-Poncet, Ambassador from France to Nazi Germany reported, “He entered into a sort of mediumistic trance; the expression on his face was ecstatic.”
In July 1919, working as an intelligence agent of the Reichswehr, less than a year after his release from hospitalization for “hysterical blindness” in Pasewalk, Hitler had infiltrated the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP), whose foundation was sponsored by the Thule Society. In Bevor Hitler kam, an account of the Thule Society published by Dietrich Bronder several months after the Nazis took power in Germany, Sebottendorff claimed the Thule Society as a primary source of the National Socialist movement: “Thule people were to whom Hitler first came, and it was Thule people who joined him in the beginning.” The Thule Society was founded in 1910 by Felix Niedner, the German translator of the Norse Eddas. The Munich branch was founded in 1918 by Rudolf von Sebottendorff (1875 – 1945?), the pseudo-aristocratic alias of German occultist Adam Alfred Rudolf Glauer, a Freemason, with an interest in Sufism, Kabbalah, Theosophy and astrology, and also an admirer of Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels, was the founder of the influential Thule Society, which was dominated by high-ranking Nazis. French writer Jean Robin, like fellow French author Rene Alleau, shows that Sebottendorf’s central idea was to form a militant sect of devotees comparable with the Ismaili Fedayeen (Assassins) guided by their spiritual leader, the Old Man of the Mountain.
Sebottendorff spent most of the rest of his life in Turkey, taking Ottoman citizenship in 1911. According to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Sebottendorf was initiated by a family of Jewish Freemasons in Salonika (Thessaloniki), the heartland of the Dönmeh sect, into a lodge believed to have been affiliated to the French Rite of Memphis. He eventually inherited their library of texts on alchemy, Kabballah, Rosicrucianism, and Sufism. He was initially interested in Theosophy and Freemasonry, through which he was introduced to the Bektashi Sufis. In his 1924 book, The Practice of Ancient Turkish Freemasonry, Sebottendorff described encounters with Sufism, especially the Bektashi, whom he dubbed “old Turkish Freemasonry.” In their practices, a set of numerological meditation exercises, which purportedly were for the subtle transformation of the body, he believed he saw Rosicrucian traditions, which preserved those esoteric teachings that modern Freemasonry had forgotten. Through his relations with the Bektashi, Sebottendorf’s theories were related to Pan-Turkism, the Turkish version of Nazi race theories adopted by the Young Turks.
Pan-Turkism venerated an ancient homeland called Ergenekon, which corresponded to the legend of Agartha, also venerated by the Thules. The Thule Society identified the Germanic people as the Aryan race, the descendants from Thule, and sought its transformation into a super-race by harnessing the power of Vril. Inspired by Greco-Roman geographers who located the mythical land of “Ultima Thule” in the furthest north, Nazi mystics identified it as the capital of ancient Hyperborea, a lost ancient landmass supposedly near Greenland or Iceland, and the land of the super-race who inhabited the Hollow Earth. The Ancient Greeks wrote not only of the sunken island of Atlantis, but also of Hyperborea, a northern land whose people migrated south before it was destroyed by ice. In the late seventeenth-century, Swedish author Olaf Rudbeck located Hyperborea at the North Pole and several other accounts related that before its destruction, it broke into the islands of Thule and Ultima Thule.
According to Jean-Claude Frére, author of Nazisme et Sociétiés Secretès, the Thule Society believed that the people of Hyperborea, after migrating to the Gobi Desert over 6000 years ago, supposedly founded a new center which they named Agartha, equated with its cognate Asgaard, the home of the gods in Norse mythology. These ideas also derived from Donnelly’s earlier speculation of a lost landmass that had once existed in the Atlantic that was the home of the Aryan race, represented by the distribution of swastika motifs. It was Louis Jacolliot, in Les Fils de Dieu (“The Sons of God”), who linked Bulwer-Lyttons’ Vril with the subterranean people of Thule, who he thought would harness its power to become supermen and rule the world.
The Thule Society, originally a cover-name for the Germanenorden (also called the Teutonic Order), was a völkisch secret society founded in Berlin in 1912 by Theodor Fritsch and several prominent German occultists from the List Society, the Ordo Novi Templi (ONT) and the High Armanen Order. The High Armanen-Orden claimed descent from the Templars, and wished to reestablish the science of runes and the worship of Wotan (old High German for Odin, progenitor of the Scandinavians who migrated from “Asgard”) as well as an Aryan-dominated empire loosely based on the Teutonic Knights. The Germanenorden, whose symbol was a swastika, had a hierarchical fraternal structure based on Freemasonry, and celebrated the summer solstice, an important festivity in Völkisch circles. Members were encouraged to study the Prose Edda as well as some of the German mystics, including Meister Eckart, Jacob Boehme and Paracelsus. In addition to occult and magical philosophies, it taught to its initiates nationalist ideologies of Nordic racial superiority and anti-Semitism.
In 1916, the Germanenorden split into two parts. The schismatic offshoot: the Germanenorden Walvater of the Holy Grail, was joined in the same year by Sebottendorff. Sebottendorff increased the Germanenorden’s membership from about a hundred in 1917 to 1500 by the autumn of the following year. The Munich lodge of the Germanenorden Walvater when it was formally dedicated on August 18, 1918 was given the cover name, the Thule Society. Sebottendorf instructed Karl Harrer to set up a political group aimed at ordinary workers, which became the short-lived Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP), the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (“National Socialist German Workers’ Party,” NSDAP).
Hitler was recruited to the Reichswehr by Captain Karl Mayr (1883 – 1945), a German General Staff officer. On May 30, 1919, Karl Mayr was appointed as head of the Education and Propaganda Department. He was given considerable funds to build up a team of agents or informants and to organize a series of educational courses to train selected officers and men in “correct” political and ideological thinking. Mayr was also given the power to finance “patriotic” parties, publications and organizations. Mayr later recalled that Hitler was “like a tired stray dog looking for a master” and someone “ready to throw in his lot with anyone who would show him kindness.” In June 1919, Hitler began a course on political education at Munich University. Speakers included Thule member Gottfried Feder and Karl Alexander von Müller. During one of Müller’s lectures, Hitler was involved in a passionate debate with another student about the Jews. Müller was impressed with Hitler’s contribution and told Mayr that he had rhetorical talent.
Mayr later wrote in his memoirs that Thule member General Erich Ludendorff had personally ordered him to have Hitler join the German Workers’ Party (DAP) and build it up. The DAP was formed by Anton Drexler, Hermann Esser, Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart. After giving his first speech for the DAP on October 16, 1920, at the Hofbräukeller, Hitler quickly became the party’s most active orator, eventually attracting ever larger crowds. Hitler organized the DAP’s biggest meeting yet of 2000 people, for February 24, 1920, in the Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in Munich. Further in an attempt to make the party more broadly appealing to larger segments of the population, the DAP was renamed the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers Party; NSDAP).
At the DAP, Hitler met Eckart who became his mentor, exchanging ideas with him and introducing him to a wide range of Munich society. Eckart had expressed his anticipation of List’s prophecy of a “German Messiah” who would save Germany after World War I in a poem he published in 1919, months before he met Hitler for the first time. When Eckart met Hitler, Eckart was convinced that he had encountered the prophesied redeemer. Eckart refers to Hitler as “the Great One,” “the Nameless One,” “Whom all can sense but no one saw.” Eckart became Hitler’s mentor, exchanging ideas with him and helping to establish theories and beliefs of the Party. Hitler described Eckart as “the spiritual founder of the Nazi Party” and dedicated Mein Kampf to him.
As described by Joseph Howard Tyson. Hitler’s Mentor: Dietrich Eckart, His Life, Times, & Milieu:
Noticing his gauche manners and disheveled appearance, Eckart schooled him in the social graces, and bought him… suits, hats, and a gabardine trench coat. Like a theatrical director he dressed his young start for the stage, then presented him to wealthy rightwing sympathizers… with the words: “meet the man who will one day be liberate Germany.
Eckart introduced Hilter to Thule Society members, including Dr. Gottfried Grandel, nationalist publisher Julius Lehmann, General Erich Ludendorff, as well as piano company executive Edwin Bechstein and his wife Helena, society matron Elsa Bruckmann, Richard Wagner’s son Siegfried and his wife Winifred Wagner, General Franz Ritter von Epp who founded the Freikorps, völkisch historian Adolf Bartels and chemist Dr. Emil Gansser, who became one of the most successful fundraisers for the early NSDAP in Switzerland and abroad. When it became necessary for the Nazi Party to purchase a newspaper to publicize its political dogma, Epp made available some 60,000 Reichsmarks from secret army funds to acquire the Völkischer Beobachter, which became the daily mouthpiece of the party.
Eckart and Alfred Rosenberg believed it was possible to tap the hidden forces of Thule by making contact with the Great Ones of the Ancient World, who would place at their disposal forces to enable Germany to achieve world supremacy. Eckart purportedly initiated Hitler and began to train him in methods for harnessing Vril to create a race of Aryan supermen. When Eckhart died in 1923, he boasted: “We have given him the means of communicating with Them. Hitler will dance, but it is I who plays the tune… Do not mourn for me, for I will have influenced history more than any other German.”
Most authors agree that it was Hitler himself who chose the swastika as a symbol of his Nazi movement. In Mein Kampf, Hitler claimed that the form in which the Nazis used the swastika was based on a design by Dr. Friedrich Krohn, a dentist who had belonged to several völkisch groups, including the Germanenorder. The swastika, for long time a symbol of the Teutonic Knights, had been in use by Lanz von Liebenfels, the Thule Society and a number of Freikorps units. Krohn knew that the Buddhist destroverse or clockwise swastika symbolized good fortune and well-being, and made his design accordingly, with the swastika’s legs pointing to the right. The majority of the Nazi leaders accepted Krohn’s design, but Hitler insisted on a sinistroverse or anti-clockwise one and changed the design accordingly, similar to the one on the right.
Schmidt-Falk also told Daim that Hitler believed List’s reference to the advent of the “invincible,” “strong man from above” referred specifically to himself. What List was referring to was his discovery in 1891, of a prophetic verse from the Edda, which predicted that a messianic figure, the Starke von Oben (“Srong one from the Skies”) would come and set up an eternal order. Other Nazi leaders, including General Ludendorff, Rudolf Hess, and Detrich Eckart, were supposed to have read List. Von Liebenfels wrote in 1932 “Hitler is one of our pupils,” and both Werner von Bulow, who headed the Edda Society and Herbert Reichstein, who had worked closely with Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels since the mid-1920s, celebrated the advent of the Third Reich in their magazines. In the preface of issue one in the third series of Ostara, around 1927, Liebenfels wrote: “One shall remember that the swastika- and fascist movements are basically offspring of Ostara.” Rudolf John Gorsleben was associated with the Thule Society during the Bavarian Soviet Republic of 1919 and, along with Hitler’s mentor Dietrich Eckart, he was taken prisoner by the Communists, narrowly escaping execution. He immersed himself in Bavaria’s völkisch politics and formed a close working relationship with the local Germanenorden before devoting himself to literary pursuits.
Early in 1920, before Hitler had left the Reichswehr, Mayr had taken him along to meetings of the Iron Fist club of army officers, founded by Captain Ernst Röhm. Röhm, who belonged to the Freikorps under General Franz Ritter von Epp, was an original member of the DAP and a known homosexual, who became a close associate of Hitler and the founder of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the Nazi Party’s original paramilitary wing. After the war, the Germanenorden, influenced by Guido von List’s admiration for the Vehmgericht, or Holy Vehm, began to be used as a cover organization to recruit political assassins. According to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, “The vehmgericht could rise again to restore order in a world where modern tendencies appeared to some individuals as a threat to their culture. List and his followers found satisfaction in this fantasy of a militant, omnipresent, yet hidden force that appeared to promise the restoration of a new pan-German empire.” At least 354 enemies of the Nazis were assassinated over several years by the Vehm campaign, the most prominent being Walther Rathenau, Foreign Minister of the German Republic during World War I. Ironically, many of the victims were killed for sexual and not political reasons. Waite writes:
The Feme [Vehme] was often directed against former comrades of post-Free Corps organizations. The very multiplicity of Bunds and secret societies led to competition, quarreling and death… Competition and conflict was intensified by the fact that many of the Freebooters were homosexuals and hence prone to jealousy and “lover’s quarrels.”
Prominent among these assassins were Gerhard Rossbach, Edmund Heines and other “Butch” homosexuals who would later help to shape the Nazi Party. Historian Robert G.L. Waite described Rossbach, generally credited with inventing the brown uniforms of the Nazi Party, as a “sadistic murderer of the so-called Fehmgericht and the notorious homosexual who, according to his own testimony, perverted Ernst Röhm.” Rossbach took part in the Beer Hall putsch of 1923, and was recruited by Hitler to help organize the SA. Heines was a Nazi Party leader and Röhm’s deputy in the SA.
Hitler was aware of Röhm’s homosexuality. Their friendship shows in that Röhm remained one of the few intimates allowed to use the informal German du (singular “you”) when speaking with Hitler. In turn, Röhm was the only Nazi leader who dared to address Hitler by his first name “Adolf” or his nickname “Adi” rather than “mein Führer.” Unlike many in the Nazi hierarchy, Röhm never fell victim to Hitler’s “arresting personality” nor did he come fully under his spell, which made him unique. Their close association led to rumors that Hitler himself was homosexual.
A great number of the SA, also known as Brownshirts, were homosexuals. “Theirs was a very masculine brand of homosexuality,” wrote historian of homosexuality Alfred Rowse, “They lived in a male world, without women, a world of camps and marching, rallies and sports. They had their own relaxations, and the Munich SA became notorious on account of them.” Louis Snyder, prominent historian of the Nazi era related, “what was needed, Röhm believed, was a proud and arrogant lot who could brawl, carouse, smash windows, kill and slaughter for the hell of it. Straights, in his eyes, were not as adept in such behavior as practicing homosexuals.” As Röhm admitted in his autobiography, “Since I am an immature and wicked man, war and unrest appeal to me more than the good bourgeois order.”
Under Röhm, SA intimidation contributed to the rise of the Nazis and the violent suppression of rival parties during electoral campaigns, but its reputation for street violence and heavy drinking was a hindrance, as was the open homosexuality of Röhm and other SA leaders such as his deputy Edmund Heines. In June 1931, the Münchener Post, a Social Democratic newspaper, began attacking Röhm and the SA regarding homosexuality in its ranks. In March 1932, the paper published some of Röhm’s private letters that had been confiscated by the Berlin police back in 1931 and that exposed his homosexuality.
Sexologist and friend of George Sylvester Viereck, Magus Hirschfeld, claimed to have transcripts from two male clients who testified that they had sexual encounters with Hitler. Scott Lively and Kevin Abrams, the authors of The Pink Swastika, reveal that the first Nazi book-burning took place four days Nazi homosexual Ernst Röhm and his Storm Troopers raided Hirschfeld’s Sex Research Institute in Berlin. On May 10, 1933, the Nazis burned thousands of books and files taken in that raid. The institute had extensive records on the sexual perversions of numerous Nazi leaders, many of whom had been under treatment there prior to the beginning of the Nazi regime, as required by the German courts for persons convicted of sex offenses. Ludwig L. Lenz, who worked at the Institute at the time of the raid but managed to escape with his life, later wrote:
Why was it then, since we were completely non-party, that our purely scientific Institute was the first victim which fell to the new regime? The answer to this is simple…We knew too much. It would be against medical principles to provide a list of the Nazi leaders and their perversions [but]… not ten percent of the men who, in 1933, took the fate of Germany into their hands, were sexually normal… Our knowledge of such intimate secrets regarding members of the Nazi Party and other documentary material—we possessed about forty thousand confessions and biographical letters—was the cause of the complete and utter destruction of the Institute of Sexology.
Jonathan Katz, a Holocaust historian, writes, most, if not all, of the founding members of the German Workers Party were either homosexuals or bisexuals.” Historian Frank Rector records that the German Workers Party, the forerunner to Hitler’s Nazi Party, “was founded at a gay bar in Munich called the Bratworstglockl.” According to Lively and Abrams, this would help to explain Hitler’s close relationships to his purportedly homosexual patrons Dietrich Eckart and Karl Haushofer. Prior to the war, homosexuality remained at a moderate level in Germany. After the war, however, it become so widespread that people in England and France began to refer to it as the “German disease.” Eventually, note the authors of The Hidden Holocaust, “homosexuality rose so much in Germany that immediately after the Marxist revolution, homosexuals use the unbridled freedom of the time to form clubs and associations that would represent their interests.” And, as Lively and Abrams demonstrate, homosexuality was widely prevalent in the Nazi hierarchy. Though, their book has received rather severe condemnations from other academics, who are more concerned with what they see as the “anti-gay” bias of the authors, and who therefore fail to comprehend the significance of their conclusions.
Among their numerous sources is Jewish historian Samuel Igra, who in 1945 published Germany’s National Vice, which called homosexuality the “poisoned stream” that ran through the heart of Nazism. Igra, who escaped Germany in 1939, claims that Hitler “had been a male prostitute in Vienna at the time of his sojourn there, from 1907 to 1912, and that he practiced the same calling in Munich from 1912 to 1914.” Desmond Seward, in Napoleon and Hitler, says Hitler is listed as a homosexual in Viennese police records. Although there were at least four women, including his own niece, with whom Hitler had sexual relations, as noted by historian Robert G. L. Waite as well as Walter Langer, his sexual encounters with women included his coprophilic perversion as well as other extreme forms of masochism.
Whether or not Hitler was involved personally in homosexual relationships, the evidence is extensive that he surrounded himself with practicing homosexuals. Langer notes that Hitler’s personal bodyguards were “almost always 100 percent homosexuals.” Rudolf Hess was known in homosexual circles as “Fraulein Anna.” SS Chief Heinrich Himmler’s “pederastic proclivities” were captured on film by Nazi filmmaker Walter Frenz. In The Twelve Year Reich, Richard Grunberger tells of a party given by Nazi propagandist, Joseph Goebbels, which degenerated into a homosexual orgy.
It is well known that the Nazis persecuted homosexuals, as they did Jews, Gypsies and other “inferiors.” However, as openly gay columnist for the London Independent, Johann Hari, in an article tiled “The Strange, Strange Story of the Gay Fascists,” dared to acknowledge, “there has always been a weird, disproportionate overlap between homosexuality and fascism.” As the authors of The Pink Swastika demonstrate, the Nazi persecution of homosexuals was reflective of a conflict that typically divides the gay community, between “fems” and “butches.” As Hari further explained, the Nazis “promoted an aggressive, hypermasculine form of homosexuality, condemning ‘hysterical women of both sexes’, in reference to feminine gay men.”
Effectively, the Nazis perceived the height of veneration of the purported masculine virtues to be fulfilled through homosexual relations, a practice common in warrior societies like ancient Sparta. Eva Cantarella, a classicist at the University of Milan stated that, “The most warlike nations have been those who were most addicted to the love of male youths.” Such societies are profiled in The Sambia, by anthropologist Gilbert Herdt, who studied homosexuality in various societies, who wrote that “ritual homosexuality has been reported by anthropologists in scattered areas around the world [revealing a]… pervasive link between ritual homosexuality and the warrior ethos… We find these similar forms of warrior homosexuality in such diverse places as New Guinea, the Amazon, Ancient Greece, and historical Japan.”
As outlined by Barbara Spackman, in Fascist Virilities: Rhetoric, Ideology, and Social Fantasy in Italy, the term “virility,” associated with the cults of youth, duty, sacrifice, strength, obedience, sexuality, war, and so on, represented a key feature of the fascist vision of the world. Mussolini believed that the virility of male bodies was essential Mussolini attempted to refine his conception of the ancient and warlike Roman empire, to reconstruct in a modern context the ancient and warlike “Italian descent” as the National, then European and finally International model. Zeev Sternhell, for example, lists virility as one of many qualities and cults that characterize the “new civilization” desired by fascism, yet those cults in fact read like dictionary entries for a single master term During the same era, the belief was grounded in science that females were biologically inferior to men. It is for this reason that the active pursuit of exercise and modern sports was strongly recommended as a measure to increase masculinity and combat any signs of femininity.
According to the authors of The Pink Swastika, the Nazi homosexuals, “were militarists and chauvinists in the Hellenic mold. Their goal was to revive the pederastic military cults of pre-Christian pagan cultures, specifically the Greek warrior cult.” Plutarch, a Greek historian of the first century AD, stated: “it was chiefly warlike peoples like the Boeotians, Lacedemonians and Cretans, who were addicted to homosexuality.” Cantarella notes that Plutarch wrote of “the sacred battalion” of Thebans made up of 150 male homosexual pairs, and of the legendary Spartan army, which inducted all twelve-year-old boys into military service where they were “entrusted to lovers chosen among the best men of adult age.” Sparta was the inspiration for the fascist state found in Plato’s The Republic, and Plato had Phaedrus, in the opening speech of the Symposium, praise homosexuality in the following manner:
For I know not any greater blessing to a young man who is beginning life than a virtuous lover, or to the lover, than a beloved youth. For the principle which ought to be the guide of men who would live nobly – that principle, I say, neither kindred, nor honour, nor wealth, nor any other motive is able to implant so well as love … And if there were only some way of contriving that a state or an army should be made up of lovers and their loves, they would be the very best governors of their own city … and when fighting at each other’s side, although a mere handful, they would overcome the world.
Since the open homosexuality of the Greeks was the ideal, German psychoanalyst, Wilhelm Reich in his 1933 classic, The Mass Psychology of Fascism, explained:
For the fascists, therefore, the return of natural sexuality is viewed as a sign of decadence, lasciviousness, lechery, and sexual filth… the fascists… affirm the most severe form of patriarchy and actually reactivate the sexual life of the Platonic era in their familial form of living… Rosenberg and Bluher [the leading Nazi ideologists] recognize the state solely as a male state organized on a homosexual basis.
Hans Blüher (1888 –1955) was a German writer and philosopher, who attained prominence as an early member and historian of the Wandervogel, a popular movement of German youth groups from 1896 onward. In the years 1912 and 1913, Blüher and Freud exchanged ideas around the evaluation of male homosexuality, a point on which Freud and Blüher were not in entire agreement. Blüher’s comments on the homosexual aspects of the Wandervogel movement and the role homoeroticism and male bonding played in the creation of European culture and institutions were hotly contested. Blüher supported these with a theory of the Männerbund, the all-male “warrior-society” of pre-modern cultures. Blüher believed that pederasty and male bonding provided a basis for a stronger nation and state, which became a popular concept within certain segments of the Hitler Youth. Blüher later supported the Nazis but turned on them in 1934, when Ernst Röhm was murdered on Hitler’s orders during the Night of the Long Knives.
On June 30, 1934, Hitler had Röhm arrested and shot on suspicions of disloyalty, being the most high-profile execution of the massacre known as “the Night of the Long Knives.” Röhm’s execution was also the beginning of a massive crackdown on homosexuals. According to German historian Lothar Machtan, however, Röhm and the large number of homosexual figures within the SA were killed by Hitler to silence speculation about his own homosexuality. The officer corps of the SA became the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), organized by Reinhard Heydrich, Himmler’s second in command. It was this branch of the SS security Service, that controlled the concentration camps. Of the three SS divisions, notes Abrams, the Sicherheitsdienst was the most sadistic.
 Blavatsky. The Secret Doctrine, Volume I, Cosmogenesis, p. 536.
 Ian Kershaw. Hitler, 1889-1936: hubris, (W. W. Norton & Company, 2000) p. 138-139.
 Sedgwick. Against the Modern World, p. 96.
 Claus Hant. Young Hitler, (London: Quartet Books, 2010), p. 395.
 Walter C. Langer. The Mind of Adolf Hitler (Basic Books, 1972), p. 73.
 The Memoirs of Bridget Hitler (1979), pp. 29, 35.
 D. George Boyce. “Harmsworth, Alfred Charles William, Viscount Northcliffe (1865–1922).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004).
 Jim Keith. Mass Control: Engineering Human Consciousness (Adventures Unlimited Press, 2003), p. 31.
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 John Coleman. The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, p. 1.
 David Bakan. Sigmund Freud and The Jewish Mystical Tradition (Mineola: Dover Publications, 2004).
 See, e.g., Henri F. Ellenberger. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry (Basic Books, 1970); Malcolm Macmillan, Freud Evaluated: The Completed Arc (North-Holland, 1991; second edition forthcoming from MIT Press, 1997); and Adam Crabtree, From Mesmer to Freud: Magnetic Sleep and the Roots of Psychological Healing (Yale University Press, 1993).
 E. Fuller Torrey. The Mind Game (New York: Emerson Hall Publishers, Inc., 1972), p. 70.
 William Kroger & William Fezler. Hypnosis and Behavior Modification: Imagery Conditioning (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1976), p. 412.
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 Jonathan Miller. “Going Unconscious,” in Hidden Histories of Science, edited by Robert B. Silvers (New York Review Books, 1995), pp. 1-35; cited in Frederick C. Crews, “The Consolation of Theosophy II” The New York Review of Books Vol. 43, No. 15 (October 3, 1996).
 Ian Kershaw. Hitler1889-1936: Hubris (London: Penguin 2001); Erin Barrett & Jack Mingo. W. C. Privy’s Original Bathroom Companion, Number 2 (St. Martin’s Press, 2015).
 Rabbi Antelman, To Eliminate the Opiate. Volume 2, p. 207.
 Allan Hall. “DNA tests reveal ‘Hitler was descended from the Jews and Africans he hated.” The Daily Mail, (24 August 2010).
 “Hitler verwant met Somaliërs, Berbers en Joden,” De Standaard, Wednesday 18th August 2010; “Hitler was verwant met Somaliërs,” Berbers en Joden Knack, (18th August, 2010).
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 Brian McGuinness. Young Ludwig: Wittgenstein’s Life 1889-1921 (University of California Press, 1988), p. 51, and Ray Monk. Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius (Penguin, 2001), p. 15.
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 Ian Kershaw. Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis (London: Allen Lane: The Penguin Press, 2000), p. 198.
 Ronald F. Musto. Apocalypse in Rome: Cola di Rienzo and the Politics of the New Age (University of California Press, 2003).
 Alan Bullock. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (London: Penguin Books, 1962), p. 31.
 Samuel Igra. Germanys National Vice (Quality Press Limited, 1945). p. 67.
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 Margarita Troitsyna. “Joseph Stalin’s occult knowledge and experiments,” Pravda (June 23, 2011)
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 Brigitte Hamann. Hitler’s Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man (Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2010), p. 233.
 Ian Kershaw. Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999), pp. 41, 42.
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 David Nicholls. Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion (University of North Carolina Press, 2000), pp. 236, 237, 274.
 Goodrick-Clarke. Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 195.
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 Ian Kershaw. Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999), p. 54.
 Walter C. Langer. The Mind of Adolf Hitler (Basic Books, 1972), p. 39.
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 David Luhrssen. Hammer of the Gods.
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 Mark Sedgwick. Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual History of the Twentieth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004) p. 96.
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 Ian Kershaw. Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999), p. 87.
 Claus Hant. Young Hitler (London: Quartet Books, 2010), p. 395.
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 Goodrick-Clarke. Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 192.
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 Goodrick-Clarke. Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 156.
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 Goodrick-Clarke. The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 77.
 Waite. Vanguard of Nazism. p. 222f
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 Roger Manvell & Fraenkel. Heinrich. Goebbels: His Life and Death (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2010), p. 135.
 John Gunther. Inside Europe (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940), p. 6.
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 H. R. Knickerbocker. Is Tomorrow Hitler’s? 200 Questions On the Battle of Mankind (Reynal & Hitchcock, 1941), p. 34.
 A.L. Rowse. Homosexuals in History: Ambivalence in Society, Literature and the Arts (New York, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1977) p. 214.
 Dr. Louis L. Snyder. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, (New York: Paragon House, 1989) p. 55.
 Hari. “The Strange, Strange Story of the Gay Fascists.”
 Lothar Machtan. The Hidden Hitler. Basic Books (2002), p. 107.
 Daniel Siemens. Stormtroopers: A New History of Hitler’s Brownshirts (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2017), p. 173.
 Joseph Howard Tyson. Hitler’s Mentor: Dietrich Eckart, His Life, Times, & Milieu (iUniverse, 2008), p. 326.
 Irwin J. Haeberle. Swastika, Pink Triangle, and Yellow Star: The Elite Rights Committee (1992), cited in Scott Lively and Kevin E. Abrams. The Pink Swastika: Homosexuality in the Nazi Party (Sacramento: Veritas Aeterna, 2002).
 Jonathan Katz. Gay American History: Lesbian and Gay Men in the U.S.A., p. 632 n94.
 Frank Rector. The Nazi Extermination of Homosexuals, (New York: Stein and Day, 1981) p. 69.
 Günter Grau & Claudia Shoppmann. The Hidden Holocaust?: Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933-45 (Routledge, 2013), p. 110.
 Samuel Igra. Germany’s National Vice (London: Quality Press Ltd., 1945) p. 65.
 Desmond Seward, Napolean and Hitler: A Comparative Biography (New York, Simon & Schuster) p. 299.
 Walter C. Langer. The Mind of Adolf Hitler (New York: Signet Books, 1972) p. 179.
 Robert G. L. Waite. The Psychopathic God Adolf Hitler (New York: Signet Books ,1977) p. 283f.
 Washington City Paper (April 4, 1995).
 Richard Grunberger. The 12-Year Reich: A Social History of Nazi Germany 1933-1945 (New York: Ballantine Books, 1971) p. 70.
 Johann Hari. “The Strange, Strange Story of the Gay Fascists,” The Huffington Post, (October 21, 2008).
 Eva Cantarella. Bisexuality in the Ancient World, (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1992), p. 71.
 Gilbert Herdt. The Sambia (New York: CBS College Pub lishing, 1987) p. 203.
 Zeev Sternhell. “Fascist Ideology,” in Fascism: A Reader’s Guide, ed. Walter Laqueur (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 315-76.
 Sandro Bellassai (2005). “The masculine mystique: anti-modernism and virility in fascist Italy.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 3, 314-335
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 Erotikus, 761 D.
 Cantarella. Bisexuality in the Ancient World, p. 72.
 Wilhelm Reich. The Mass Psychology of Fascism (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1970). 91ff cited in The Pink Swastika, p. 57.
 H. Schurtz. Alterklassen und Männerbünde (Berlin, 1902); A. Van Gennep. The Rites of Passage (Chicago, 1960).
 Kevin E. Abrams. “The Other Side of the Pink Triangle.” Lambda Report, (August 1994).